Riazanovska V. Features of functioning of low-traffic transport lines of different types of transport // International scientific journal "Internauka". — 2019. — №9.
Economic and Enterprise Management
Postgraduate Student of the
National Aviation University
FEATURES OF FUNCTIONING OF LOW-TRAFFIC TRANSPORT LINES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRANSPORT
Summary. To date, the transport system belongs to one of the most important sectors, which provides the needs of the population and economy of the entire country in the transport of various types of transport. In today's market conditions, issues concerning the efficient functioning of the transport system, including the study of low-traffic lines or areas of different modes of transport, are of relevance to ensure higher rates of development of the national transport system. Transport is used for both internal and external transport. In recent years, this branch is in the process of reform, therefore, it is promising to ensure the interconnection of the lines of all modes of transport. Each type of transport has its own specifics, disadvantages and prospects. At present, the transport system is a combination of transport infrastructure, vehicles and enterprises, as well as management of this system. The effective functioning of such a system will ensure stability of the business entities, satisfy the needs of the population and contribute to further positive changes in the economy of the country as a whole. The main task is adapting the transport system of Ukraine to the norms of international transport and customs law, technical and operational and environmental requirements of international standards for rolling stock, roads and infrastructure. In the article the peculiarities of functioning of the transport system are considered, namely, the low-traffic transport lines of various types of transport. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid by scientists to the study of issues related to the management of low-traffic transport lines of the transport system, mostly railways, and rarely the problems of automobile and aviation modes of transport. It should be noted that each of the types of transport system in Ukraine has in efficient lines or areas requiring the study and identification of specific measures aimed at addressing identified deficiencies. This will ensure the stable and efficient functioning of all elements of the transport system in the long-term.
Key words: the transport, transport system, low-traffic transport line, the efficient functioning.
Statement of the problem. In today's market conditions, the efficient functioning of the transport system is one of the key priorities of the national economy, which contributes to the economic and social development of the country. An urgent question arises about the study of low-impact areas of all types of transport: road, rail, water, pipeline, aviation. Important questions remains regarding identifying and eliminating the main disadvantages of different types of transport in order to increase the level of satisfaction of transportation needs and the efficient functioning of the transport system as a whole.
Analysis of recent researches and publications. The following scientists are engaged in the investigation of issues concerning low-impact sections of the transport system, in particular rail transport: Pasichnyk V.I., Eitutis D.G., Barash Y. C., Zorina OI, Mishchenko M.I., Kirilenko O. M., Proshkina O. S. It should be noted that in the scientific literature there is a lack of research materials on low-impact areas of other modes of transport.
Formulation purposes of article (problem). The purpose of the article is to study the peculiarities of the operation of low-impact lines of various types of transport and the main directions of the development of the transport system.
The main material. The study of the functioning of low-impact areas is relevant not only for the Ukrainian transport system, but also for transport in many countries of the world.
The current political and economic complexities of Ukraine have a significant impact on all sectors, including transport. All types of transport meet the needs for passenger and freight transportation. Each type of transport carries out transportation in its area, providing the needs for transportation of passengers and cargo, it can be transportation by air, sea, rail or road.
The main reasons for the slowdown of the transport industry are loss making of passenger transportation, high level of aging of fixed assets, in particular, the wear and tear of rolling stock has reached 80-100% (in the medium-term prospect is the massive cancellation of electric locomotives, tram cars and trolleybuses), expensive credit resources of domestic banks, limited credit international financial organizations, significant lack of financing of highways, lack of effective concession mechanisms .
Water transport is part of the industrial and transport infrastructure of Ukraine, taking into account international transport corridors. After analyzing the state of the water type of transport, it is worth noting the following, low-performing points are ports, quays, which need modernization, reconstruction in order to achieve high cargo flow capacity.
The main directions for improving the operation of seaports are envisaged:
By analyzing road transport, we can assume that small roads, for example, of regional importance, which plays a significant role in urban communication, can not be protected or closed, as these areas are of strategic importance for the whole country.
The throughput of individual Ukrainian roads equals or exceeds these standards. In particular, the road Kyiv-Boryspil has a throughput of 40 thousand cars per day and 4-5 lines in both directions.
The areas of motor roads, individual directions may not be effective, as unsatisfactory coverage helps to reduce the traffic flow of vehicles of motor transport enterprises, which, in turn, negatively affects the level of incomes of transport enterprises, taxes paid to the budget also by foreign carriers.
At the present stage of implementation of the road reform, the following main problems can be distinguished, the solution of which will be to implemented effective mechanisms for the development of the road system in Ukraine:
According to the order of the Ministry of Transport and Communications of Ukraine, a small part of the railway transport is a section with the size of passenger and freight trains, according to the schedule, no more than 8 pairs per day .
Authors Kyrylenko O.M. and Mishchenko M.I. methods of rational reduction of the cost of operational activity on low-impact sections of railway transport - application of simplified methods of operation and modern, innovative fixed assets:
Aviation is a rather young form of transport, and in order not to lose its share in the market, Ukrainian carriers need to reduce tariffs, improve service quality, and upgrade aircraft. For the airport in Uzhgorod there is no decision on air traffic control.
Attention is needed to the airports, without flights, Ternopil, Cherkasy, Poltava - the necessary involvement of investment programs, revival of traffic, and critical norms, but with passenger traffic, indicators of the efficiency of the airport functioning in Nikolaev reach.
The main reasons for our country's low interest are weak purchasing power, economic downturn, instability of the exchange rate. Lowestoft companies work where there are no restrictions and there is a possibility to reduce their operating costs. To make our market interesting for such companies, you need to take just a few steps:
Pipeline transport has sufficient production capacity to supply Ukraine with energy - oil and gas, and the feature is the possibility of its continuous operation.
For gasification of the country, the following gas pipelines were constructed: Dashava - Drohobych, Dashawa - Stryi, Shebelinka - Kharkiv, Shebelinka - Dnipropetrovsk - Krivoy Rog - Odessa, Shebelinka - Kiev - Krasilov - western regions of Ukraine. From Prykarpattya there are gas pipelines to Poland, Slovakia, Each Republic. Through the territory of Ukraine, the main gas pipelines from Orenburg, Western Siberia, which Russia exports gas to Western Europe, was built.
The following directions concerning the development of pipeline transport are offered:
Insights from this study and perspectives for further research in this direction. The emphasis is placed on the fact that each mode of transport plays an important role in transport and requires clearly targeted measures to achieve a competitive level and effective operation in the future.
It is concluded that the general tendency of the present in the development of all types of transport should be solving the problems of low-impact lines or areas, which in the future will allow to gradually improve the efficiency of the transport system as a whole.