Syvokhop Ya. Principles of the formation of healthy lifestyle of students in the process of sports and regional study activities in the afterschool educational institutions // International scientific journal "Internauka". — 2019. — №1.
PhD in Pedagogical Science, Senior Lecturer at the
Department of Management and Innovation Development of Education,
Head of the Research Laboratory of Healthcare Technology
Transcarpathian Institute of Postgraduate Education
PRINCIPLES OF THE FORMATION OF HEALTHY LIFESTYLE OF STUDENTS IN THE PROCESS OF SPORTS AND REGIONAL STUDY ACTIVITIES IN THE AFTERSCHOOL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
Summary. The article describes the basic principles of the formation of healthy lifestyle habits of students in the process of sports and regional studies in the afterschool educational institutions.
Key words: principles, formation, healthy lifestyle, health, students, afterschool educational institutions, sports and regional studies work.
The scientific, methodological, socio-pedagogical and procedural-objective characteristic of the modern system of afterschool education and upbringing of children and student youth is a holistic pedagogical and educational system, which includes principles, content of education, forms, methods and pedagogical conditions of the functioning of this system. The analysis of scientific works gives us reasons to believe that these pedagogical categories, according to the interpretation of leading Ukrainian and foreign pedagogues Y. Babansky, S. Goncharenko, M. Davydov, C. Kupisevich, I. Lerner, V. Okonya, Oleksyuk, V. Onishchuk, V Pomagaiba, O. Savchenko, M. Skatkin, S. Chavdarov, are determined today by effective components of the methodology of the formation of vital knowledge, skills and abilities of the growing personality.
Analysis of the above-mentioned domestic and foreign scientific and pedagogical works and the carried out in recent years research has made it possible to conclude certain achievements in the scientific substantiation of the principles of education and upbringing of children and students youth. However, the full acceptance of these principles, one or more of their classifications, and most importantly, practical application in forming the skills of a healthy lifestyle in the educational process of the afterschool educational institution, according to our beliefs, should be adjusted in accordance with the specifics of such work.
The initial position in the substantiation of the theoretical foundations of the modern classification of the principles of constructing and exercising of sports and regional studies by students in institutions of afterschool education, aimed at the formation of their healthy lifestyle, are historically recognized principles of environmental and cultural compatibility, formal and informal approaches to the organization of education and upbringing of children of various age, based on the studies of Y. Komensky and F. Disterweg [6; 4].
It should be noted that these principles in the early 20-ies of the twentieth century were laid by E. Medinsky in the basis of the development of a number of didactic principles of education, such as: scientific, systematic and consistent, visibility and abstraction, with a special emphasis on consciousness, activity and practical activities of students, the strength of their knowledge and skills. He also introduced another major concept that complied with the needs of developing afterschool education those years - the principle of child-centricity, or, as interpreted by Medinsky, the principle of taking into account the interests and needs of the child and the principle of education of the child through self-study and practical activities in the environment and, most importantly, in a team created by the common interests of children . Subsequently, the content and the basic list of principles of teaching and education of the individual was changed, improved, acquired another essence and orientation .
Thus, in the analytical, theoretical, conceptual and categorical field of research that we described above, the provisions concerning the division of principles of education into general-didactic, specific and national ones are taken into account. According to our belief, this should ensure the unity, systematic and pedagogical effectiveness of the method of forming a healthy lifestyle of students in the process of sports and regional studies work in the afterschool educational institutions. The expediency of such approach to differentiating the principles of education into general didactic, specific didactic and national in the field of afterschool education is confirmed by scientific works and the results of the research G. Pustovit [9, p. 72-74] and our analysis of contemporary practice in the field of afterschool education and upbringing.
As stated in the Ukrainian pedagogical dictionary, the principles of education are "... the regulations that occur on the basis of the laws of education and determine the general direction of the educational process, the basic requirements for its content, methodology and organization" [3, p. 270].
Consequently, the principles of education cover all aspects of the educational process and are the result of a generalization of world experience in the field of education. I. Bech observes a similar, but wider, philosophical and cultural characteristics of the interpretation of the principles of education, emphasizing attention on the fact that this is not just regulations, but rather "... the ideas of the methodological level" [5, p. 712].
An analysis of modern scientific works of general pedagogical and didactic and methodical direction gives us grounds to conclude that there is still no single opinion regarding the classification, hierarchy, number and definitions of the essence of the principles of education. S. Goncharenko highlighted the general and national principles of education [5, p. 270], and in the scientific works of M. Fitsula the basic principles of national education are grounded [13, p. 238].
However, in the last national encyclopedic publication Encyclopedia of Education, the principles of education are considered by I. Bekh as a certain pedagogical system. A constructed in this way educational process, in his opinion, has signs of projection, to some extent, and guarantees a positive final result [5, p. 712-713].
We determine the following general-pedagogical principles that should be taken into account when developing educational content aimed at creating a healthy lifestyle of students in the process of sports and regional studies in the afterschool educational institutions:
On the basis of the analysis of scientific works of O. Bykovskaya [2, p. 171-180], G. Pustovit [9, p. 72-74], we also introduced some adjustments in the classification of modern principles of the organization and implementation of afterschool education and the upbringing of children and students in accordance with the specifics of the formation of a healthy lifestyle of students in the process of sports and regional studies in the afterschool educational institutions.
Accordingly, this made it possible to determine precisely those specific principles that most fully reflected the content, structure and approaches of the formation of the phenomenon under study in their accordance with the general and national didactic principles.
To the specific, namely educational principles, which are inherent predominantly in the educational process of the afterschool educational institutions, we have included the generalizing principle of environmental compatibility in education, as well as a number of specific principles:
A group of principles that are important for the substantive content of sports and lore studies activities in the afterschool educational institutions, aimed at forming healthy lifestyles among students, includes the national principles of education set forth by us. The essence of the latter is considered by us as an integration of the educational traditions of the Ukrainian people for the preservation and improvement of the health of the younger generation, formed in the historical retrospective of the formation and development of the nation, social relations, according to changes in the content of education and upbringing of children and student youth. Therefore, taking into account the latter, in the process of determining and describing the principles of forming a healthy lifestyle of students in the process of sports and regional studies activities in the afterschool educational institutions, we have focused not on the definition of new principles of education, but rather on the implementation of adaptation and improvement of national principles of education on the basis use in their interpretation of the essence and methods of applying the leading national ideas, folk traditions, achievements and taking into account the national mentality of the problem under study [12, p. 104-105].
According to the analysis above, we can assume that among the priorities in the list of national principles should be those that most effectively contribute to the realization of the goal, objectives and content of the formation of a healthy lifestyle of students during the process of sports and regional studies in the afterschool educational institutions and are aimed at the comprehensive solution of educational , developmental, health-preserving and purely applicable tasks of physical culture, sports, educational, cognitive, ethnographic and national studies. We determined the following principles:
We believe that the general didactic principles of education and upbringing, although they are leading in determining primarily educational content and, accordingly, the forms and methods of its implementation in the educational process of institutions of extracurricular education for the formation of a healthy lifestyle of students in the process of sport and regional studies, however, we do not reject the importance of specific principles. We believe that the leading role and significance of the specific principles of the formation of a healthy lifestyle of student youth lies precisely in determining the essence and direction, as well as the characterization of the specifics and peculiarities of the implementation of the specific educational institutions of the afterschool educational institutions, educational influences that are characteristic of the educational process. The purpose of the latter is to solve specific educational and training tasks by students during the exercise of regional studies, aimed at forming a healthy lifestyle [11, p. 155-157].
Substantiation and refinement of traditional principles (general didactic, specific and national) of education of students in the afterschool education institutions made it possible:
The results of our research showed that this approach allowed us to determine the hierarchical component of the application of general didactic, specific and national principles of education, both in the design of educational content, its implementation in the educational process of the afterschool educational institution, and in promoting the increase of the effectiveness of the corresponding forms and methods. Activity of the students and teachers collective on the formation of healthy lifestyle habits of students in the afterschool educational institutions.