Sych T. Methodological approaches in research of education management problems // International scientific journal "Internauka". — 2018. — №10. https://doi.org/10.25313/2520-2057-2018-10-3887
PhD, Docent of the Department of
Public Service and Management Educational and Social Institutions
Luhansk Taras Shevchenko National University
METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES IN RESEARCH OF EDUCATION MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS
Summary. The article gives a description of the main methodological approaches that are used in research of educational management problems, the problem of their definition in the national dissertation works is outlined.
Key words: methodology of research, methodological approaches, education management, education management problems.
In modern conditions of the development of science, in particular, the theory of education management, the research requires a profound methodological training of the performers, which can be explained by the strengthening of the links between different scientific branches and the orientation, the integration of all humanities into one object − a person. The methodology in this process plays a decisive role, promoting integrity, systematic, productive, and increasing the professional orientation of research activities. It is also important that the use of research methods in various sciences: cybernetics, mathematics, sociology, etc. − the problems should be addressed in the sphere of education management. Within the same research subject, a scientist can realize various goals and objectives. Therefore, the methodology of research should reflect not only the features of the subject of research, but also its goals and objectives. Methodology as a science about the combination of the most common philosophical principles and their application for solving complex theoretical and practical problems is a definite position of the researcher. From his point of view on the scientific problem, which methodological approaches are used to solve it depends on the effectiveness of his research work, the truth of the scientific knowledge.
Domestic scientists dealing with the quality of scientific research note the low methodological level of scientific research [1; 11]. Ye. Hrykov highlights the typical shortcomings of the methodological foundations of pedagogical research: formal guidance of methodological approaches that are not implemented in the study; guiding a large number of approaches (sometimes the majority of the existing ones), indicating that they are not implemented; the given approaches do not reflect features of a scientific specialty, the subject of research; methodological approaches contradict each other (for example dialectics and the philosophy of instability) . Among the works devoted to the problem of methodological support of scientific research in pedagogy should be mentioned the collective monograph edited by V. Lozova , in which the methodology approaches (systemic, synergetic, cultural, axiological, anthropological, resource, competence, personal-activity, personal, acmeological, deontological, technological, historical and pedagogical) to pedagogical researches are presented. However, the analysis of scientific literature on the methodology of research has shown that nowadays there is no generalization of methodological approaches used in research on education management problems.
The purpose of the article: to provide a description of the methodological approaches, the use of which is appropriate in the research of education management problems.
As Ye.Hrykov notes, the following approaches and theories are common to different scientific specialties: dialectical, paradigmatic, systemic, technological, cultural approaches and theory of knowledge. However, the author distinguishes among the methodological approaches that reflect the specifics of the scientific specialty "Theory and Methods of Education Management": the philosophy of instability; synergy; the theory of self- learning organization; the theory of adaptive management; the theory of the creation of conditions; situational approach; international quality management standards (ISO 9000) . Let's consider the essence of these basic approaches. Dialectics as a science, as a general theory of development, is used to explain the essence of phenomena. Dialectics as a method of cognitive activity is used to obtain new knowledge. In all branches of science and at all stages of scientific research, a dialectical method is used, which represents the highest philosophical level of research methodology. This method determines the directions of any scientific research. It allows to explore all the phenomena in the relationship, interdependence and historical development.
The system approach as a general scientific, interdisciplinary, methodological concept is based on the position that the specificity of a complex object (system) is not limited to features of its constituents, but primarily due to the nature of the interaction between the elements. Therefore, the task of learning the nature and mechanism of these relationships and relations, in particular the relations of a man and a society, people within a certain community, comes to the fore. In the process of system analysis, not only the causes of phenomena are found, but also the effect of the result on the causes which gave rise to it [2, 499]. The use of the system approach in research on education management issues can be consistent with the level of specific research methodology, in which problems are developed to determine the specifics of objects and subjects of management of systems; the construction of research programs for objects as systems; the definition of specific methods of system research in the field of education management; the definition of the strategy of a practice-oriented research aimed at using system representations for designing, building and improving the real system of management of an educational institution.
On the basis of system analysis, the first situational concepts of management began to develop. Since the 1950s, it became clear that it was impossible to reflect the dynamics of management by describing only stable functions and ways of their implementation. The emergence of situational concepts in the United States was associated with the critique of classical, and then neoclassical management theories. One of the tasks of the situational approach is to understand how the organization responds to changing conditions and specific circumstances, and how it can form the types of organizations, systems and processes of management, most relevant to specific situations. The use of this approach reflects the specific scientific level of the research methodology of education management problems. The situational approach creates the basis for the development of various situational theories, which were separated from the school of social systems and occupy a special place among the modern theories of management in the 80s of the twentieth century. The most developed of them is the theory of leadership, the theory of adaptation, the theory of global strategy and the theory of management by results.
As a new level of system thinking, the application of ideas of synergetics in pedagogy, which are based on the laws of self-organization and self-development of pedagogical systems in the 90s are begun to consider. Synergetics gives an opportunity to approach the problems of pedagogical systems development, management of educational systems in a new way, considering them primarily from the standpoint of "openness", co-creation and self-development. V. Lutay emphasizes that the "problem of human survival" can be solved on the principles of synergetic methodology (I. Prygogyn), solving the most acute contradictions of the present, in particular the contradictions between partially individualistic and collectivist tendencies, and, therefore, it is possible to optimize and resolve the main task of modern education - the formation of a person who could better combine individual interests with all more general social interests . A number of scholars rely on the idea of a synergetic approach in the development of management problems in education (R. Vinkol, M. Gromova, T. Davydenko, G. Yelnikova, V. Kovalenko, O. Moiseev, I. Osadchyi, M. Potashnyk, T. Rogov, N. Selyvanova, V. Chernylov). Regarding management, synergetic ideas are manifested in the sense that the magnitude, power of control influences is not as important as the space-time architecture of a controlled system and the distribution of structures in it that are called strange attractors in synergy and which, figuratively speaking, , are attractive virtual points of trajectories of system self-development. Also, in the management theory the synergetic states are implemented in the theory of the self learning organization and in the ideas that more decentralized structures that support self-coordination on the basis of rules, partly regulating activities, are more effective in solving complex tasks.
The critical reappraisal of the established scientific-theoretical and practical educational systems, the need for new ideas led to the in-depth development of a number of methodological issues of pedagogy and philosophy of education, the most important of which are the cognition of educational systems, the process of managing them from the standpoint of a cultural approach and an overview on pedagogy as a cultural phenomenon. Cultural approach as a universal scientific method of research is a starting point which includes understanding and consideration of the object of research as a cultural phenomenon or process. As a methodological basis for the study of education management problems, the cultural approach implies a look at the pedagogical system and its management processes as cultural phenomena. As a method and direction of research, it takes into account certain cultural components on the broad socio-cultural background of society with the emergence of a local cultural situation in the process of management of educational institutions. Facts and phenomena with this approach are revealed in view of socio-cultural processes in the past, present and future. The use of the cultural approach in the study involves consideration the subject of research through the prism of system-forming culturological concepts such as: culture, cultural patterns, norms and values, way of life, cultural activities and interests, etc.
The paradigmatic approach is based on the ideas of postmodern philosophy. The founder of the paradigmatic approach is T. Kuhn, who defines the paradigm as "recognized by all scientific achievements, which give a model of problem-setting and their solution to the scientific community during certain time" [3, p. 11]. In one sense, it is a general "world view" that includes theories, methods of measurement, and even metaphysical abstractions. In another one, the paradigm emphasizes the importance of "concrete scientific achievements" that provide models from which the specific coherent traditions of scientific research grow. Solving new problems is done through their specific modeling, which underlies the new approach.
The resource approach in the study of the nature of interaction of different origin objects has acquired wide spread at the end of the twentieth century due to the fact that it gives the opportunity to take into account the requirements imposed by the external environment, as well as internal capabilities to increase efficiency in all spheres of life personality. A resource-based approach to education management can be defined as a set of technologies, methods, methods of ensuring the identification and use of resources and the development of the potential of an educational organization as a whole and of an individual in order to increase the efficiency of various types of its activities, organization of communication and stimulation of the subject of management to self-realization. The development of the ideas of the resource approach was reflected in the theory of the creation of conditions under which the management of the educational institution is considered as the activity of the management system, aimed at creating a set of conditions necessary for the functioning and development of the institution of education.
One of the leading trends in the development of science in Ukraine and abroad is the rethinking of the subjects and phenomena of research from the standpoint of technological approach. The study of education management problems in its context has the following features: the subject of the research is a certain management technology, the definition and study of components of technology is carried out in accordance with the criteria of technologicality. These ideas have been continuation in theories of quality management education, which are aimed at creating quality management systems and the development of specific quality management technologies.
The analysis of the abstracts of the dissertation research on the subject "Theory and methodology of education management" showed that scientists usually determine the following approaches: epistemological (for the study of genesis of organizational and managerial structure of different parts of education); axiological (the orientation of management to universal, ideological, humanistic-democratic values, when the person is regarded as the highest value of society); person-activity (makes it possible to study the problems of the management of educational institutions from the standpoint of the psychological and pedagogical theory of activity and ensures the development and self-development of the individual in view of the identification of its individual characteristics as a subject of knowledge and substantive activity); strategic (defines possible directions of activity and development of educational institutions through planning, organization and implementation of strategic changes); dialogue (consideration of multicultural education as a means of integration to the world and pan European educational space); qualitative (involves quantitative assessment of qualitative changes); structural-functional (consideration of the problem of education management through the definition of structural-functional relationships); polysubjective (an analysis of an interaction of all subjects of management to the educational process); cybernetic (involves management of information processes); reflexive (combining facts and their perception by the researcher in conditions of uncertainty); anthroposocial (consideration of management as the creation of conditions for the satisfaction of all the needs of each participant in the educational process); anthropological (allows us to investigate the relationship between a man and a society, a society and a power, a man and a man), etc. It should be noted that the methodology of research is usually disclosed in doctoral dissertations. In the majority of candidate's theses the methodology is revealed at the level of determination of research methods in the abstract. In a small number of abstracts methodological principles are outlined according to the methodology levels, but the justification of their use is carried out in several works. This situation does not really contribute to the quality of scientific research and indicates an intuitive level of methodological foundations in most of the PhD theses.
Consequently, the main methodological approaches are the foundation on which the methodology of research on education management issues is based. Their choice should be determined by the peculiarities of the subject of the study. The methodological approach determines not only the view of study of the research subject, but also the use of certain methodological tools. Nowadays, the choice of methodological foundations for research should depend not only on the methodological culture of a researcher, but also on the establishment of clear regulatory requirements for the justification of the methodology of research in dissertation papers at the level of specialized academic councils for the defense of dissertations, the Ministry of Education and Science, etc.