Summary. The cognitive aspect of the modern purposes of teaching in foreign languages were investigated.
Key words: cognitive aspect, linguodidactics, foreign language.
master of philology, senior lecturer
Pavlodar State Pedagogical Institute
Sailauova L.J., Bahitova D.S., Abdikhapar A.
Pavlodar State Pedagogical Institute
COGNITIVE ASPECT OF THE MODERN PURPOSES OF TEACHING TO FOREIGN LANGUAGES
Summary: The cognitive aspect of the modern purposes of teaching in foreign languages were investigated.
Key words: cognitive aspect, linguodidactics, foreign language.
In a modern linguodidactics and a technique the purpose of training in a foreign language is considered in three aspects: pragmatic, cognitive and pedagogical. These aspects correspond with practical, developing, educational which continue to be postulated as main in practice of teaching a foreign language in various types educational institutions so far, and are at first sight similar with above-mentioned in substantial sense. However, such terminological transformation in designation of aspects of the purposes of teaching in foreign languages is represented justified as is not nominal, but deeply substantial. The used terms are relevant to basic provisions of a modern linguodidactics and a technique of training in foreign languages. Heterogeneous determinism of the purposes of training in foreign languages is caused by social and economic, political and social and pedagogical factors which action is shown concerning society to foreign languages, to the level and quality of language education at a certain stage of social and economic development of this society.
Now, as we know, the purpose of training in foreign languages is understood as formation of the identity of the student capable and wishing to participate in the mediated and direct communication at the cross-cultural level [1: 96]. Such personality in a modern linguodidactics is qualified as the secondary language personality (I. I. Haleeva). Thus, the strategic objective of modern language education at all levels consists in formation at the studying main lines of the secondary language personality doing learning a foreign language capable to adequate social interaction in situations of cross-cultural communication. Complexity and a multidimensionality of the postulated purpose also caused need of its consideration as sets of the interconnected and interdependent aspects: pragmatic, cognitive and pedagogical. It is undoubted that only the understanding of an essence (contents) of these three components and their correct ratio in practice of teaching a foreign language can result in positive results of training. Our observations show that teachers of foreign languages pay bigger attention realization of pragmatic and pedagogical aspects, and absolutely insignificant (if at all give) - to the cognitive (developing) aspect which is implemented in practice of training as if in itself as assimilation of a modern language already causes a certain personal development of student this language. In this regard it is obviously necessary to consider in more detail the content of cognitive aspect of the modern purposes of training in foreign languages, briefly having characterized pragmatic and pedagogical aspects.
The pragmatic aspect is connected with formation of foreign-language communicative competence at students on various levels of proficiency allowing them "to join ethno-linguistics cultural values of the country of a target language and practically to use foreign language in situations of cross-cultural mutual understanding" [1: 98]. It is necessary to emphasize, however, that among the Russian and foreign scientists there is no community of approaches to component structure of communicative competence in a quantitative sense. The Wang Ek’s six-component model  containing linguistic, sociolinguistic, discursive, sociocultural, social and strategic competences is most often quoted.
As for pedagogical aspect of the purposes of training in foreign languages, it is directly connected with an emotional and affective component of training which is caused by valuable systems of subjects of educational process - studying and training, their feelings and emotions, their relation to content of the studied discipline and to technology of training. Thus, the pedagogical aspect assumes consideration of training in a foreign language from a position of its educational and educational impact on the identity of the student and, unlike two others, is projected on "extralinguistics" characteristics of the identity of the student which existence gives an opportunity to use a foreign language as means intercultural interactions with carriers of this language [1: 119]. Such personal characteristics include, first of all, the positive relation to a target language and culture, interest in cultural and material values of other culture, phenomena of other mentality, desire and ability to perceive, understand and compare them to own perception of the world and cultural experience, to reveal similarity and distinction between own and foreign culture. Development of the listed personal qualities and abilities assumes dynamics in motivation to process of comprehension of a new ethno-linguistics cultural, in understanding of an importance of a learning of foreign language and the need for its practical use as means of communication with representatives of other cultures.
Speaking about cognitive aspect of the purpose of training in foreign languages, it is necessary to emphasize that cognitive aspects of functioning of the personality and intelligence of the person are shown, first of all, in language. The language personality consists of abilities of the person to carry out different types of recurrent activity and to realize various communicative roles in the course of a social interaction of people. Thus, the cognitive aspect of the purpose of training in a foreign language is connected with cognitive development of students and includes the sphere of such categories as knowledge, thinking, processes of understanding, perception involved in the course of familiarizing of the pupil with a foreign language to culture of the country of a target language. It is known that the cognitive science, in particular, an epistemology and cognitive psychology is engaged in studying of the listed categories, and also processes of processing of information.
As cognitive process the learning of foreign language is connected with mastering of two types of knowledge: declarative (declarative knowledge) or "know about" and procedural (procedural knowledge) or "know how" (W. Rivers), acquired by students empirical and academic in the ways. Both categories of knowledge are important for mastering skills and abilities of speech communication in a foreign language as the second category represents some sequence of actions which should be executed with language material in order that foreign-language communication took place. As it is noted in linguistic researches, language knowledge of the person exists not in itself, and is formed in the course of his diverse experiment on creation of an individual conceptual (cultural) picture of the world. Unlike knowledge of the native speaker based on it previous (sociocultural, social, discursive etc.) experience, when forming an individual picture of the world the studying foreign language leans on informative means of the native culture for understanding of means of foreign culture, on new knowledge of foreign culture and on the new knowledge of own culture created at knowledge of foreign culture . As V. I. Gerasimov and V. V. Petrov emphasize, mastering set of knowledge of the world, a social context of the statement, knowledge of features of a discourse, laws of its planning and management, etc. allows the person to seize "the global semantic project" at construction and perception of foreign-language statements [4: 6] which is connected with "comprehension of mental, spiritual essence of the carrier of a target language, that world in which he lives, and taking into account it in situations of cross-cultural communication" [1: 111].
The cognitive aspect of the purposes of training in foreign languages also assumes need of the account for educational process or by preparation for it of cognitive structures (forms) of representation of knowledge. The analysis of scientific and methodical and research works shows that frames are among the most widespread structures - deep invariants of certain fragments of knowledge and scripts - dynamic frames [5: 26] which are also certain means of the organization of experience and instruments of knowledge. Frames happen congenital (for example, knowledge of characteristic features of a human face), acquired (acquired from experience or training, for example, knowledge of social establishments), there are also frames which completely depend on the related language expressions (for example, dates of a calendar, etc.). Frames can be correlated to declarative knowledge, and scripts - with procedural as they describe the standard sequence of actions in a stereotypic situation [5: 27]. Therefore, it is necessary to form the basic cognitive structures providing them perception and understanding of language and the world of other linguocultural community in consciousness of students. I. I. Haleeva emphasizes: "The essence of training of cross-cultural communication consists in construction in cognitive system of the recipient (trainee) of secondary designs - knowledge which would correspond to knowledge of the world speaking (the representative of other sociocultural community" [6: 162]. This knowledge makes a basis of language and conceptual pictures of the world.
Process of formation of basic cognitive structures promotes cognitive development and formation of language consciousness of the student on the basis of which there is "penetration" into foreign culture, i.e. sociocultural images are formed. On the basis of cognitive presupposition (peculiar "cognitive memory" of the previous cognitive experience) there is an understanding of perceptible information. Therefore, the cognitive aspect of the purpose of training in foreign languages is connected with development in trainees of ability of flexible use of different types of information, ability it is correct to interpret it and to effectively "eliminate" missing quanta of information. Follows from the aforesaid that the strategy of the analysis and interpretation of the perceived or generated text in a foreign language depend not only on characteristics of this text, but also on personal characteristics of the student, his interests, intensions, cognitive knowledge, and also figurative perception, mental images, physical, social and cultural experience, the importance of realities in the mastered culture, etc. [7: 164; 8: 49].
Formation at the trained broad idea of achievements of national cultures (own and foreign-language) in development of universal culture and about that value which the native language and native culture for culture of the country of a target language has mastering the verbal, educational and research strategy of knowledge of others linguocultural of comparison to own are also connected with cognitive aspect of training in foreign languages. In this sense the cognitive aspect is actually developing aspect of training as assumes development in the language, speech, communicative abilities learning a foreign language which basis well developed mechanical memory, volume of random access memory, the high level of development of thinking, steady attention, speech abilities in the native language make, probabilistic forecasting .
Successful mastering foreign-language communicative activity also depends on other mental processes, traits of character and psychological individual characteristics (for example, extent of development of cogitative operations: the analysis - synthesis, a speech guess), and also from mastering pupils the strategy of work on language (the strategy of memory, affective and social strategy) and the metacognitive strategy (based on reflexive abilities of students).
Thus, the cognitive aspect of the purpose of training in foreign languages assumes mastering by it not only as means of cross-cultural communication, but also its use as instrument of knowledge of new linguocultural reality, cognitive development of the student and acquisition of a modern language.