Romanenko E. Current trends, problems and prospects for the development of logistics in Ukraine and the world // International scientific journal "Internauka". - 2017. - №15.
Graduate Student of the
University of Customs and Finance
CURRENT TRENDS, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOGISTICS IN UKRAINE AND THE WORLD
Summary. The article deals with the tendencies of development of transport-logistic systems of the world in the conditions of globalization and integration processes. The analysis of the world logistic system and advanced countries of the world is carried out. Prospects and problems of the logistic system of Ukraine are considered.
Key words: transport and logistics system, logistic operators, outsourcing of logistic services, tendencies of logistic development.
The development of the global logistics market in the 21st century is determined by rather controversial trends. Being, by its nature, an integral part of the infrastructure sector of the international economy, the world transport and logistics complex is in a dependent position from the branches of material and material production. Therefore, the crisis phenomena in the manufacturing sector can not but affect the global market for logistics services. At the same time, the logistics market itself is a factor in the intensification and optimization of production. Therefore, the manufacturing sector and the transport and logistics sector are interconnected in a complex way, but have somewhat different dynamics and development trends.
The market for logistics services at the beginning of the third millennium is at the stage of fundamental changes, which significantly affect the role and scope of its participants' activities and the structure of their relationships .
The main trend in the development of the world market for transport and logistics services is an increase in the share of logistics outsourcing .
Transport companies, whose sphere of activity is logistics outsourcing, assume the fulfillment of many important tasks: development of the route of freight transportation, provision of warehouse services, choice of logistic schemes of cargo transportation, and so on. The assignment of these tasks to specialized logistics companies is much more advantageous than their independent execution, which leads to the development of logistics outsourcing .
Transport and logistics systems (TLS) are some of the most important components that ensure the economic development of enterprises, regions and Ukraine as a whole. They are the link that connects producers, traders, and consumers with each other. The level of transport and logistics services depends on the level of satisfaction of consumers' needs in quality goods and services.
Particular attention deserves the development of transport and logistics systems in the conditions of Ukraine's integration into the European and world economic system. Therefore, the problems of TLS development are relevant and deserve attention .
Problems of the development of transport and logistics systems are devoted to the work of both foreign and domestic scientists. Among them are V. Anderson, JC Villa  VV Braginsky , D. Bowersox , A. Hajinsky , V. Dikana , O. Dorokhovsky , E. Kricavsky , I. Swan and V. Krikuna , B. Sizdikbayeva , T. Siryichik , O. Sokolova  and others. The research of scientists relates to the development of various types of transport, management science, marketing approach and other relevant issues related to the transport and logistics system or its components.
However, despite a rather deep study of the general problems of the development of TLCs, there is a problem of identifying modern trends in the development of transport and logistics systems associated with globalization, the development of digital technologies, changing the conditions of the modern world, management innovations and new needs of society.
World economic development at the present stage is characterized by global economic processes, convergence of national economies, spheres of political and public activity, optimization of allocation of resources and production. The processes of globalization also affect the development of transport and logistics systems. Thus, in transport, globalization manifests itself in the improvement of transport and logistics technologies, the development of intermodal transportation, and the introduction of digital technologies that enable tracking the movement of goods in real time. Interaction of different types of transport, warehouses and other elements of the transport and logistics system complement each other; work on the final result - meeting the needs of consumers, taking into account the interests of all stakeholders (stakeholders) .
The marketing agency RBC.research completed the sixth wave of the study of the world market for transport and logistics services, which made it possible to establish that the global logistics outsourcing market in 2010 demonstrated an increase of 17%, exceeding the pre-crisis level . According to RBC.research estimates based on estimates from Armstrong & Associates Inc., logistics outsourcing in the United States accounted for 64.4% of the total volume of the transport and logistics market, while the average for Europe was 64.6%, in China - 45% . In Ukraine, most of the services in the field of transportation and storage of goods, and even more so in the management of stocks and supply chains, are still carried out by their own transport and logistics services of commodity producers, distributors or retailers.
It should be noted the rather high dynamics of 3PL logistics outsourcing. The average index of penetration of this kind of logistics services is 17% of the market. The most developed in this respect is the European market - 19.4%, for China this indicator is 18.0%, for the USA - 15%. Russia (as in Ukraine) is dominated by 2PL services, gross revenues of 3PL provider’s account for just over 5% of the market (including oil and gas pipelines transportation). The discrepancy in customer service levels with modern quality standards (especially in the regions), as well as the high cost of logistics outsourcing services continue to be the main obstacles to a significant increase in the demand for logistics service providers 
According to a survey of 1,500 executive directors from 61 countries conducted by Sar Gemini in 2007, nearly two thirds recognized that the use of 3PL services had a positive impact on customer interaction. One in three of the four respondents agreed with the statement that the appeal to the 3PL Operator had a positive impact on the effectiveness of business processes.
The appearance on the market of 4RL-provider's logistics services can be called regular and predictable. For the first time, 4PL service providers were registered in 1996 by consulting firm Andersen Consulting, now Accenture, with the following interpretation: "A fourth-level logistics provider is a supply chain manager that reduces the resources, capacities and technology of its organization with the resources, capacities and technology of another logistics enterprise and manages it to offer customers the most complete solution to tasks in the supply chain".
The most dynamic growth has been demonstrated by the segment of freight transportation and freight forwarding services, which was determined by the recovery of cargo flows from Asia to Europe and North America, which have been heavily affected by the crisis, by an increase in supplies from Asian countries to Latin America, and by the dynamic growth of imports of investment goods, and as well as raw materials and semi-finished products in the Asia-Pacific region. In 2011-2012, the growth rate will drop to 10% as a result of the exhaustion of the low base effect and the slowdown in global economic growth and trade. The risks associated with the revision of the US credit rating, the continuing debt crisis in Europe, and the expected decline in oil prices remain. The depressive trends observed in the US economy and the European Union, the danger of a second wave of ever-rising crisis, will negatively affect the dynamics of the market for transport and logistics services .
The development of transport and logistics systems and their components are of great importance to all countries of the world. Thus, the US transport system, which is the most powerful in the world and provides a permanent and reliable work of the country's economy, develops at the expense of effective state policy. The main tool for implementing transport policy is the use of various programs to improve the transport system. In recent years, three major programs have been implemented in the US for the development of the transport system: the economic development program; mobility program; a social program that directly relates to the protection of the environment.
The results of the implementation of the program of economic development of transport in the USA are: insignificant increase in prices for transport services; increase in volumes of transportation; reduction of trade restrictions related to the further development of transport; possibility of involvement in the activity of small business.
The results of the implementation of the mobility program are: to improve the state of the US transport system in accordance with modern requirements; Minimizing travel time costs; improvement of safety and reliability of vehicles; reduction of transport costs. The results of the program implementation in the social sphere and the environment are: reduction of the negative impact of transport on the state of the environment and ecosystem; improving livelihoods and social relations; reduction of pollutants associated with transport sources .
So, in summary, we note that in analyzing the world market of logistics services it was found that the dominant tendency on it is a significant growth of outsourcing and concentration in the so-called "logistic triad": 1st pole - EU countries, 2nd pole - the USA and Canada; The 3rd Pole is Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea and China, India and Thailand.