Kolomiiets O. Methodological settings in mass media text study as constructs of different nature // International scientific journal "Internauka". - 2017. - №15.
PhD, Associate Professor of Law,
Social and Humanitarian and General Economic Disciplines Department
Khmelnitsky Cooperative Trade and Economic Institute
Коломієць Олена Миколаївна
кандидат філологічних наук, доцент кафедри права,
соціально-гуманітарних та загальноекономічних дисциплін
Хмельницький кооперативний торговельно-економічний інститут
Коломиец Елена Николаевна
кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры права,
социально-гуманитарных и общеэкономических дисциплин
Хмельницкий кооперативный торгово-экономический институт
METHODOLOGICAL SETTINGS IN MASS MEDIA TEXT STUDY AS CONSTRUCTS OF DIFFERENT NATURE
МЕТОДОЛОГІЧНІ УСТАНОВКИ ВИВЧЕННЯ ТЕКСТІВ МАС МЕДІА ЯК КОНСТРУКТІВ РІЗНОЇ ПРИРОДИ
МЕТОДОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ УСТАНОВКИ ИЗУЧЕНИЯ ТЕКСТОВ МАСС МЕДИА КАК КОНСТРУКТОВ РАЗНОЙ ПРИРОДЫ
Summary. The article is devoted to the methodological settings analysis in mass media text study. The text as a construct and macrosign of different nature is presented.
Key words: text interpretation, descriptive method, cognitive and onomasiological analysis, linguistic and stylistic abstraction, reconstruction, structural reconstruction, semantic reconstruction, syntactic reconstruction.
Анотація: Статтю присвячено аналізу методологічних установок у вивченні текстів мас медіа. Представлено текст як конструкт-макрознак різної природи.
Ключові слова: інтерпретація тексту, описовий метод, когнітивно-ономасіологічний аналіз, лінгвістико-стилістичне абстрагування, реконструкція, структурна реконструкція, семантична реконструкція, синтаксична реконструкція.
Аннотация. Статья посвящена анализу методологических установок в изучении текстов масс медиа. Представлен текст как конструкт-макрознак разной природы.
Ключевые слова: интерпретация текста, описательный метод, когнитивно-ономасиологический анализ, лингвистико-стилистическая абстракция, реконструкция, структурная реконструкция, семантическая реконструкция, синтаксическая реконструкция.
General essence of the problem. Today it is necessary to develop special methods of studying and text interpreting, since numerous scientists (M.P. Kochergan, N.K. Kravchenko, O.O. Selivanova) paid attention to the problem of the comprehensive methodology lack for text levels reproduction, as well as the meanings that lie behind them and the importance of text and context for decoding evaluations, cultural attributes and linguistic characteristics.
Analysis of recent research and publications. Structural, semantic and syntactic reconstruction of the mass media texts requires the involvement of the most important linguistic method of comparative and historical reconstruction with an updated understanding of its procedure (L. P. Dronova, A.V. Koroleva, O.O. Selivanova, M.O. Shutova), along with other philological methods (descriptive method, cognitive and onomasiological method, the method of linguistic and stylistic abstraction as well as decoding speech acts), which are used at various text levels (compositional and semantic, syntactic, etc.) Other methods such as contextual and interpretative method and philological analysis of the text are crucial for the interpretation of the results of the reconstruction procedure and mathematical methods that are designed to ensure the reliability of the results.
The purpose of the article. The aim of the article is to distinguish the mass media text as a construct of the cultural, linguistic and speech nature.
Main body. Comparative and historical method is based on the comparison of the most established language systems [8, p. 7] with an updated reconstruction technique  that allows to reveal the representation of the mass media text as the realization of the cultural, linguistic, speech nature, that has the logic of construction and the result of the cultural environment and the detection of stable characteristics through the coding of historically predetermined and fixed meanings in the conscious.
The reconstruction of the compositional and semantic elements of the mass media texts allows the text to be presented as the implementation of a cultural scheme that has the logic of constructing and includes a “diachronic matrix” (S.V. Knyazov). That is why, through the structure of the mass media text, its logical costruction another text appears, which is the result of the cultural environment.
In this regard V.M. Toporov notes: “Every step in the reconstruction of the text is accompanied by its projection into the sphere of textual structure” [12, p. 415]. Thus, the reconstruction makes it possible to distinguish the compositional and semantic element of the mass media texts, ascertaining their role and significance behind it.
The descriptive method, which is one of the oldest linguistic methods, is carried out during the reconstruction of compositional and semantic elements for the purpose systematic inventory of mass media texts and the explanation of the features of their structure and functioning in the languages. Descriptive method is a certain algorithm of action, which involves the allocation of analized units, selection of the devided units and their classification [6, p. 212].
The reconstruction of the inner semantic elements of the mass media is aimed at identifying the stable, meaningful characteristics used to codify the historically determined and consolidated meanings in the mind, reflected in the practice of writing media articles. The procedure for determining the meanings fixed in the consciousness involves a clear algorithm of actions. In addition the reconstruction of the images and meanings of the text is aimed at the reconstruction of the ancient vocabulary and the definition of the values that were fixed therein. Emphasizing the importance of the reconstruction of semantic elements, O. Sorokin observes that semantic reconstruction involves the vocabulary study according to its disciples and thematic groups, as well as the definition and its place in the text (context) [11, p. 31-32].
The methods usage of cognitive and onomisiological analysis and linguistic abstraction are aimed at the reconstruction of semantic elements (lexical and stylistic).
Cognitive and onomasiological analysis (according to O.O. Selivanova) is a combined method of studying the motivation of various nominative classes, the basis of which is a two-vector approach to the study of nomination processes: from the structure of knowledge to the onomasiological structure and vice versa. In the study the method is used to establish the initial value and indicate the meaning as a reflection of a person’s attitude toward the surrounding reality.
The method of linguistic and stylistic abstraction is aimed at studying the language as a secondary rational system, taking into account its stylistic differentiation . Thus, any figurative and stylistic element of the text is evaluated not as a component or subordinate in the system of figurative and stylistic elements, but as the one of the linguistic signs that reflects the mental conception of reality through the prism of consciousness.
Reconstruction of the syntactic elements of the mass media through the interpretation of the use of syntactic figures reveals the evaluation of the image and the author’s attitude that lies behind it. As F. I. Buslaev noted, the task of syntactic reconstruction of the language is to reveal in the language, in its grammar, the forms of the combination of words, the reflection of the general laws of logic, on the one hand, and on the other, the internal peculiarity of the modes of expression that are inherent in the language and often develop in contradiction with the laws of logic – “internal laws of speech” [1, p. 22]. Syntactical elements are reflection of a certain type of speech act through the figures that represent them.
According to the theory of classification of speech acts, the syntactic elements of the mass media can be classified as: 1) assertives – statements about the presence of some facts, events, etc.; 2) directives – express various orders, commands, requirements and encourage other participants of communication to action; 3) commissives – statements that implement promises, acceptance of duties; 4) expressives – an objective representation of the internal states of the individual (the author), his assessments of the behavior of other people (correctly/ incorrectly), by which the statement of the agent can affect the internal state of the target audience and change the direction of this interaction; 5) declaratives – statements intended to change some existing state of affairs [10, p. 177-180]. This approach will allow syntactical reconstruction to be carried out comprehensively: to detect and decode the internal content of syntactic figures and their appearance.
Contextual and interpretative method is conceived as a set of procedures aimed at the reconstruction of the author’s (communicative) plan, the motives and objectives of the general mass media text content. Some researchers regard this method as a kind of general descriptive method, but under conditions in which the text acts as a sign of complex nature, the contextual and interpretive method acts itself as an independent method.
Contextual and interpretive method involves two stages: contextualization and interpretation. The first is aimed at the manifestation of a rigid system continuous context, within the development of the relevant topic and the disclosure of the text concept. It takes into account the contexts of generation (worldview, individual consciousness, author’s lexicon, their immersion in the universe of culture and the corresponding existential time and space) and reception (worldview, individual consciousness, lexicon reader, their immersion in the universe of culture, the corresponding world of reality) as well as the communicative context, macrocontext of the whole text array and microcontexts (operational contexts) of the text fragments. On the basis of contextualization, the interpretation of the information is laid down in the text, the establishment of the author’s goal and strategies of influence on the reader is carried out .
In order the text analysis becomes systematic and integral, it must be built on another theoretical basis that can provide modern linguistic science concerning the text that is enriched with the data of the speech activity theory, hermeneutics and other sciences that have evolved over the past years and are relevant to generation, perception and text understanding [7, p. 28].
M.M. Kohhetov offers three principal points for systematic philological analysis of the text – attention to the semantic, content side of the text presented by the text categories, to the communicative immersion of the text and to the aesthetic qualities of artistic texts [5, p. 21]. He justifies that the procedures of philological analysis of the text is based on the six stages of the interpretive analysis of the artistic text proposed by the Russian researcher I. R. Galperin in 1976: 1) the definition of the variety of text in style, language, genre, functional type of speech (narrative, description, reasoning); 2) decoding the text as a message, disclosing the general content, its convolution to two or three sentences; 3) a detailed analysis of the meanings of words and compounds they receive in micro and macrocontexts; 4) analysis of stylistic techniques in comparison with neutral means of speech expression; 5) identification of the appointment of stylistically marked fragments of statements and their role in expressing the subjective-estimated relation of the author to the events described in the text; 6) generalization of the obtained results [2, p. 284-289].
Conclusions. Mass media texts report socially meaningful information through special rules for writing texts that are significantly different from other traditional print media texts. It is advisable to emphasize the form of the texts itself, as F. I. Sharkov claims: “In mass communication, the reader loses its concreteness, and the texts free form, typical for the elementary process of communication. Mass communication acquires a more rigorous, structured form” [13, p. 108]. The main purpose of mass media texts is to inform and influence the reader, who at the time of reading acquires a new role for the interlocutor, and the text itself is already conceived as dialogue, the exchange of points of view.