Aliyev R. M. Mother, school and textbook problems in Abbas Sahhat’s enlightener views // International scientific journal "Internauka". - 2017. - №14.
Aliyev Rafael Mail
The teacher of the chair of “Azerbaijan language”
Azerbaijan State Univeristy of Oil and Industry
MOTHER, SCHOOL AND TEXTBOOK PROBLEMS IN ABBAS SAHHAT’S ENLIGHTENER VIEWS
ПРОБЛЕМЫ ШКОЛ, УЧЕБНИКА И РОДНОГО ЯЗЫКА В ПРОСВЕТИТЕЛЬНЫХ ВЗГЛЯДАХ АББАСА САХХАТА
Summary: Abbas Sahhat is one of the most talented representatives of the literary-cultural environement of Azerbaijan at the end of the XIX century at the beginning of the XX century. His pedagogical activity, as well as his activity in new school type, his serious and resolute position in changing the Arabian alphabet, the struggle he had made for the purity of the language. His articles, poems for children, letters in verse, stories, dramas have been completely counted on protection of national-spiritual values.
Key words: native-language textbooks, Arabian alphabet, speech culture, education problems, new type of schools, purity of language.
Аннотация: Аббас Саххат один из самый талантливый представитель в литературно-культурной среде Азербайджана в конце XIX начале XX века. Его педагогическая деятельность, открытие школ нового типа, демонстрация усиленной и решительной позиции в области изменения арабского алфавита, борьба за чистоту языка является примером для всех периодов. Его статьи, детские стихи, рассказы, пьесы в целом были подсчитаны на защиту национально-духовных ценностей.
Ключевые слова: учебники родного языка, арабский алфавит, речевая культура, образовательные проблемы, новый тип школ, чистота языка.
Subject-matter of the issue: A. Sahhat’s enlightener views, importance of mother language in his scientific – pedagogical activity.
The aim of the work: To clarify the essence of the reasons conditioning importance of the issue of the mother tongue in the prominent educationist intellectual’s activity.
At the end of the XIX and at the first part of the XX century, one of the brightest figures of the literary-cultural environment of Azerbaijan was Abbas Sahhat. The period he lived in, is distinguished with ultimate intensity in social, political, cultural environment and renaissance character of national-cultural revival. Although creative activity of this thinker, who has made great successes in development of pedagogical thought, has been studied on different levels, it still needs new approaches.
The literary – cultural environment of the latest period is carrying out serious work in research of (1881-1918) Abbas Sahhat’s literary heritage and his encyclopedic activity. Serious scientific evaluation of the work he has done as a teacher, methodologist, translator, scholar, journalist, writer, etc. is carried out and analyses are conducted in different directions. We should note that it is not related only with Abbas Sahhat, it is, actually, the result of the attitude to that period generally. Because, the end of the XIX century and the first part of the XX century rises interest as one of the richest stages of the history of Azerbaijan’s literary –cultural thought. It is evaluated as a type of peerless national revival of the ethnos. M. Mahmudbeyov’s, H. Zardabi’s, A. Gorani’s, T. Bayramalibeyov’s, E. Sultanov’s, S.M. Ganizada’s, S.S. Akhundov’s, A. Shaig’s, U. Hajibeyov’s, R. Afandiyev’s, F. Aghazada’s, F. Kocharli’s, A. Aghayev’s, A. Huseynzada’s, G.R. Mirzazada’s, M.T. Sidgi’s’, M. Shakhtakhtli’s and dozens of others’ useful contributions are bright samples of it. A. Sahhat, as one of the strongest representatives of this movement achieved serious successes with his rich, multi-branched activity. His considerations on purity of the native language, creation of textbooks, actual problems of pupils’ getting education, alphabet issue, etc. still preserve their topicality.
“Charter on primary national schools” (1864, July, 14), “Charter of gymnasiums and pro-gymnasiums” (1864, November, 19) laid ground for a series of changes in education process. So that the education institutions in Azerbaijan began to set their works on the basis of general education system. The most painful tendency here was the extraction of Azerbaijan language from education programs and implementation of russification policy in education. Urban schools began to be established in Shusha, Ganja, Nakhchivan, Shamakhi, Zagatala, Baku and other places. J. Mammadguluzada gave a detailed explanation of this problem in his article “Azerbaijan language” in new primary schools (newspaper “Tfilisskilistok”, 1905, August, 5). He especially emphasized: “Misters! Do not compile any education plan: as long as different miserable people and stalwarts chasing Azerbaijan language have authority in these issues, your plans will be of no help.” (8, p.16).
M.A. Rasulzada, in his article “Local primary schools” (newspaper “Taraggi”, 1908, November, 20) also expressed his concerns related to this issue and describing the existing situation directed the attention of intellectual environment to this point.
A. Sahhat’s entire activity was also focused on resolution of these problems. “Turkish alphabet”, “The second hand”, “Literary collection”, “Gulzar” and other numerous textbooks, manuals, methodological means are samples of it. His rich pedagogical activity was concentrated on study of school problems and determination of the ways of their solution. His books “New school”, “A first step to Turkish literature” were born from necessities and needs of pedagogical environment. Therefore, analysisof A. Sahhat’s creative activity in different directions is topical as a problem. The enlightener, saying “My profession is my biography” throughout all his life remained loyal to this thesis of his. His lyric poems, dramas, fables, translations, textbooks, etc. were created namely just as manifestation of a sense of citizenship. Dozens of his works as “Spring”, “Garden”, “Mother and child”, “A pupil”, “Birds”, “Motherland” etc. today are classic samples of our literature. His pedagogical heritage opens wide potentials for detection of advantages of our national pedagogy comparing it with pedagogical thought of other nations and enriching it” (5, p.106-107).
A. Sahhat’s creative activity had been designed for national enrichment, protection of spiritual culture of the nation in all spheres and all these formed the main principle of his creative activity. “Dabistan”, “Zanbur”, “Leader”, “Life”, “Irshad”, and other works of his published in press, translations as a whole were born from the needs of the environment. The prominent enlightener felt the need for textbooks more severely, because, he knew that to protect the richness of the mother tongue and organization of education work more accurately are very significant for the future of the nation. The textbook “New school” (1909) which he compiled together with M. Mahmudbeyov was one of the most successful samples of that period. As it is known, the renewal taking place at that period in social-cultural life was accompanied with serious confrontations, disagreements and differences in attitudes. The ongoing struggles on alphabet issue are the most obvious example for it. It was taking place not only on the level of Azerbaijan, but also on the level of the whole Caucasus and Turkic nations. The struggle of A. Bakikhanov, M.F. Akhundov, S.A. Shirvani, M. Shakhtakhtli, M. Mahmudbeyov, F.Aghazada, U.Hajibeyov, J. Mammadguluzada, Y.V. Chamanzaminli, S.S. Akhundov, G.R. Mirzazada, R. Afandiyev and others for establishment of the schools of new type, education of the native language, education of women, etc. bore important significance as a sample of self-identity. The language issue is a special line in A. Sahhat’s creative activity. His poems, textbooks, articles were directed for clarification of namely this problem. Even the great writer himself and his activity was a sample for it. He considered that to teach the pupils the native language, richness of it, to form their speech culture was a very important issue. The prominent educator used to say: “hey, awaken, be aware”. “As a skilled teacher, he made estimable contributions in opening new type of schools in native language, expansion of network of cultural centers, compilation of textbooks, organization of education and teaching works on new basis, purity and richness of Azerbaijan language, promotion of advanced Eastern and European culture among the people and other social-pedagogic and cultural works. However, in spite of the fact that wide researches have been made on A. Sahhat’s literary-artistic creative activity, his scientific-pedagogic activity and views have not been studied comprehensively.” (5, p. 106-107).
Recently, a revival is observed in study of classics, as well as national-spiritual culture. Language issue, purity of native tongue and alphabet issue bear an important significance in A. Sahhat’s scientific-pedagogic activity. As a resolution of all problems he saw improvement of the nation’s educational level, formation of a generation keeping a pace with modern society. The art of rhetoric here also is of special significance. Greek philosopher Plato while speaking about rhetoric emphasized the work of poets:
“A true poet is not obliged to his mind and efforts with anything- all that he feels, all that he creates are the gift of heavens as the news from the saints”. In A. Sahhat’s artistic heritage poetry and teaching joins and each of them becomes a fact completing each other. “Mother and child”, “The thief and his mother”, “Two children”, “A pupil”, “Lazybones”, Motherland”, “Ahmad’s honor”, “Victory is ours”, “Poem, poetry muse and a townsman” and other poems by him are meant for children’s feelings, school life and education and training of pupils.
Father, go and buy me several things,
A bag, and some copy-books maybe!
While walking with my nephew
I saw so many children going to school! (10, p.160).
This sample from the poem “Father and son” is distinguished with its content, plot compactness, perfectness of the artistic text. “A. Sahhat calls the children to school and education, stating that the rescue is in education. He expresses this aim of his as the result of his natural demands (9, p.144).
Generally, at the end of the XIX century and in the beginning of the XX century entire cultural environment was counted to realize this situation, to conduct enlightenment, increase of cultural level of the ethnos. Therefore, the entire literature, creative environment stimulated necessary works in this field. H. Zardabi’s call for “to write the works which are understood by our children” had an influence. A. Sahhat was taking necessary steps in this field both with his poems and artistic journalistic essays, as well as educating works. “A. Sahhat, comprehending enrichment of social life with the strength of education and culture, did his best to serve to his motherland, he tried to develop this field with his citizenship sense and professional eager, he believed that these dreams will come true one day (3, p. 107).
The aim and challenges emphasized in different poems of the poet were samples of it and he, especially emphasized “wake up, the nightingale of my beautiful country, let your songs rejoice this native land”. In these considerations he addresses to the successes of the advanced countries and tries to reveal their essences and set them as samples. He considered that the reasons of all lags were lack of education.
Ask your father take you to school,
So that you can get education and reach your goals (10, p.160).
A. Sahhat’s “A pupil”, “Mother and son”, “Chickens”, “The old woman and her maids”, “The swallow chicks”, “Birds”, “The dog and its shade”, “Hay mowing”, “Lazybones”, “Dispute of flowers”, “Street child”, “Bear and bees”, “ A fox and a monkey”, “ A fox and a wolf”, “A sparrow and a hawk”, “The thief and his mother”, “Early spring”, “ Two children”, “ Migration”, “Mother and child”, “An examination at a school”, and other poems are samples from the point of view of purity of the native language and richness of the mother tongue.
A. Sahhatdoes not get satisfied only with teaching at school, but also draws attention with his multi-branched activity, compilation of textbook, translations, original poems and theoretical considerations. “A. Sahhat becomes a teacher at “realny” school established in Shamakha (1906) and began to teach Azerbaijan language. The poet who had immense knowledge in a short time becomes a favorite of the pupils. He tries to create new enlightenment centers, to compile new textbooks as there was a lack of textbooks at schools, he did his best in his fields.
The textbook “New school” which he has compiled with M. Mahmudbeyov (1909) is one of his contributions. Majority of the poems and translations from Russian literature belonged to A. Sahhat” (3, p. 106).
Having a strong sense of citizenship, A. Sahhat with his activity put forward elimination of the existing problems as a goal and here the main was simplicity of the language and perfectness of the speech. Because the environment itself was face to face with a chaos, intensity of political, social, cultural aggravations. Because of it, he emphasized that “brother, open your eyes, have a look at the world which has been being prospering due to the strength of science”. A. Sahhat put forward the school, education problems, enlightenment of children, raise of the cultural level, purity of the speech, clarity of the language as a problem in his works as “Invitation”, “Naseh”, “Agitation, or an answer to idiots”, “Challenge for renaissance or the aim of a patriot”, “Furdovsul-atfal, or a kindergarten”, “Continue your school” (in Textbook “New school”), “Benefit of ignorance or happiness of an orphan”, “Ukuvvat school”, “A student” etc. J.H. Herder while saying “the thing that turns a man into a man is a language” meant exactly the exceptionality of the language and leading role of the speech as a problem”. Aristotle still before the era emphasized the leading character of this issue, determined scientific basis of the art of rhetoric. As it is known, “Rhetoric” consists of three parts:
Aristotle drew more attention to setting the speech in accordance with the style, aim and condition and showed that the main essence of the style is related with its clarity.” (1, p. 11).
On the basis of A. Sahhat’s all creative activity there lied language clarity, teaching it to children using the possibilities of the mother tongue and formation of speech skills. All of these were counted to improvement of cultural level of the people and elimination of existing problems. While paying attention to the depth of the history and the world culture, it is noticed that in the history of culture of the European nations, Greeks and Romans the role of creative environment had always been emphasized in improvement of the cultural level of the ethnos. For example, it is not accidental that Homer called rhapsodies “song-writers encouraged by the gods and muses”, Pindar named the poets as “the prophet of muses, a means between the muses and the listeners”, Plato in his “Fedr” dialogue said: “a poet is something light, with the wings, something sacred, he creates only when he is inspired and excited and at this time he has no trace of mind”. Therefore, A. Sahhat’s pedagogical activity, as well as his multi-branched activity as a poet, a writer, a translator, and a journalist was a sample for the entire environment.
One of the key issues at the end of the XIX century and at the beginning of the XX century was a struggle for the purity of the language. Natural reduction of the functionality level of the words borrowed from Arabian and Persian languages, using rich possibilities of the mother tongue, rendering to the environment the fiction pieces written in simple and clear language was put forward as a goal. Although there was difference in thoughts between Molla Nasraddinists and Feyuzatists, they came into the same conclusion. These were taken as important bases in scientific-pedagogical and artistic activity of M. Shahtakhtlı, Y.V. Chamanzaminli, J. Mammadguluzada, S.S. Akhundov, R. Afandiyev, S.M. Ganizada, A. Huseynzada, M.A. Rasulzada, A. Shaig, A. Sahhat and others. Here the alphabet issue also remained as a problem still waiting to be solved. The cultural environment already fully comprehended these tensions and got adjusted to it. As it is known, “the poet’s motherland is his mother tongue, every word, every sound of it; each word is a piece of a homeland, memory of each word is the history of the native land and nation”. A. Sahhat understood all these and kept it in his attention in his poems, essays, dramas, as well as pedagogical activity and was stepping ahead towards the resolution of the issue together with his contemporaries.
It is the law of the life that ignorant community is doomed to death,
Make an effort, study, do your best, brother, don’t give up in no way.
A. Sahhat’s “How should be a new poem”, “Bad news”, “Sabir”, “Introduction”, “To the readers of “Sovgat”, article “A few words”, dramas “Benefit of ignorance or happiness of an orphan”, Taghi and Naghi”, “Poverty is not a shame”, stories “Unhappy family”, “Unhappy Halima”, letters in verse “To my brother Ferudinbey Kocharli”, “To my friend Mirza Abdulla Shaig”, “I will not write”, “A reply to one letter” etc. express the ways out from these problems.
All these clarify aim and goals of A. Sahhat’s struggle - he conducted as an enlightened, his attitude to the existing situation, the significance he had given to the language issue, enlightenment, formation of speech culture.
Scientific results of the research:
A. Sahhat’s poetry, letters in verse, children poems, stories, dramas, scientific- journalistic articles are very important source for studying the problems of the cultural environment, topicality of the mother language issue and alphabet issue, as well as the situation in education sphere at the end of the XIX century and at the beginning of the XX century,
Fields of application: Teaching Azerbaijan language, linguistics, history of language, speec culture, lexicology, semiotics, etc.
Scientific innovation: Analysis of A.Sahhat’s literary-artistic heritage is a very important source to study the cultural process at the end of the XIX century, at the beginning of the XX century, the place of a educationist intellectual in a cultural environemnt, the problems of that period, necessity of the alphabet in Latin graphics, the needs of the school, shortcomings in the system of textbooks and the ways of their elimination, etc.