Allahverdieva S. A. The role of international transport corridors in ensuring sustainable development in Azerbaijan of the XXI century // International scientific journal "Internauka". - 2017. - №14.
Allahverdieva Sahila Abiş
k.g.s., Seniyor lecturer of the Depatment of Economical and
Social geography, Faculty of geography
Baku State University
THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT CORRIDORS IN ENSURING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN AZERBAIJAN OF THE XXI CENTURY
Summary: In this article the role of transport in ensuring sustainable development in Azerbaijan of XXI century is noted. The article desribes in detail the role of the transport system and services in Azerbaijan to increase the transit potential of the region in a globalized world.
Key words: Azerbaijan, development, transport, international freiht, transportation, modern, infrastructure.
Transport connections are the basis of economic development in the modern world. One of the main conditions of economic development and total security of any country in the world is the availability of transport corridors also some of the major types of transport to be able to move in different directions. Otherwise, the significant economic development, ensuring total security is impossible. Azerbaijan not only within the country, but also at the core of the reions market was able to ensure free movement main kinds of transport. At present our country has access to the world in different direction by rail, land, air and water transport. An important role of Azerbaijan in the strengthening of international economic cooperation through fields of transport, and in the expansion of export-import operations in the region.The paramount importance of the transport infrastructure installation across the country, creation of new ones, along with in the attracting foreign businessmen and potential investors to Azerbaijan, also in the acceleration of economic progress.
The “Great Silk Road” and the “North South” international corridors play an important role in the expansion of foreign economic relations in our Republic.
The significance of the international transport corridors passing through the territory of the country are as follows:
Azerbaijan’s accession to the existing transport corridors,an active participation of the freight and passenger traffic corridor is in line with the economic interests of our Republic. The involvement of a wider transit range of goods by this corridor, cargo volume and revenue growth, the development of transport infrastructure in our country, and also it is lead to the creation of new jobs.
So in the 2010, with the “Great Silk Road” transport corridor 51 688 tons of cargo was transported and 322 276 thousand rubles of revenue was obtained. From the carrying 223 175 thousand passengers 61 542 thousand manat was obtained.
In that part of the “Great Silk Road” passes through Azerbaijan in January-November of 2013 year 54,1 million tons of cargo or more than 4,2 %, 2600 million people or more 9,4% passengers were transported. 24,9 million tons of cargo or 46,1 was the share of road transport, 19,7 million tons or 36,4% - railway transport, 9,5 million tons or 17,5% - was the share of sea transport. From the freight transportation 421,0 million manat of revenue was obtained, and from the carriage of passengers 86,6 million manat was obtained.
In 2014, by the “Great Silk Road” transport corridor passes through the territory of Azerbaijan 58,2 million tons of cargo, 307,3 million people or more 7,8% passengers were transported. 49,8% of cargo transportation was the share of road transport, 34,2% of the rail, 16% of the sea transport, 5,7% growth was recorded in automobile transport. 21,9% or 12,8 million tons of cargo transported by sea - is the transit cargo.
Diagram 1. The dynamics of the cargo transport by the “Silk Road” in the territory of Azerbaijan
In 2014, from the freight shipments 531 million manat and from passenger transportations 120,4 million manat of revenue was obtained. In the compared to the same period last year, respectively, there is 11,5% increase in freight shipments and 13,1% - in passenger transportation. It is seen the increase in the dinamics of passenger and cargo traffic in recent years.
A great importance of the maritime transport in the implementation Azerbaijan’s international trade relations.
There is being done a lot in terms of transport infrastructure in Baku due to the increase transit potential of Azerbaijan. In recent years, there is a new design work has been done in the sea transport, as well as to other kinds of transport. There is a groundbreaking ceremony for the new International Sea Trade Port in Alat settlement. According to the President’s decree of Azerbaijan Republic No 2443 on October 18, 2007, the area of Baku International Sea Trade Port Complex, which was built in Alat settlement of Garadagh district, is planned 400 hectares. These conducted researches, associated with the selection a location for the port itself, have been confirmed. Favorable location of Alat in the bay area, which is linked to all the main roads, the convenient roads,which is linked the north, south, west and east directions in this region of Baku, and the railways. All these facts play an important role in selecting this place for the port.
There is the highway in 66 kilometers,which is linked Azerbaijan with Iran’s border, the proximity to the road and the railway lines, which connecting with Georgia and other countries, are inreases the importance of the new port, which is situated on the Caspian Sea.
The port is protected from high waves through Gil Island.The New International Trade Sea Port was built in Alat in the area of 400 hectares, the input-output channel,which 7,5 kilometers in length and width of 160 meters, a depth of 7m, and a turning circle diameters of 450 meters. It is allow to benefit securely and freely all kinds of sailing ships in the Caspian Sea Port.
The development of the port will push the economic development of countries in the region,as well as our coutry. The favorable geographical position of Azerbaijan among the countries of the region has the highest economic growth in recent years. The level of development of the country’s economy depends on transport insrastructure. Recently, enhanced by modern highways, which is linking our country with neighboring countries, railways are built. The great importance of the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway,which has great economic importance for the region.
The Baku – Tbilisi – Kars (BTK) railway project is the joint project of 3 countries – Turkey, Azerbaijan and Georgia. The basis of the railway line was founded on November 21, 2007, in the village by name Marabba in Georgia. Agreement on the construction of line was signed on the February 7 of the same year in Tbilisi, between the Azerbaijan and Georgia Presidents and the Prime Minister of Turkey.
Baku – Tbilisi – Kars railway provides the construction of the railway tunnel through the Bosporus, and also this project provides a connection of the Trans – European and Trans – Asian reailway companies.
Baku – Tbilisi – Kars railway to promote the development of the railway ferries and container cargo complex for transportation of cargo from TRACECA countries, international transportation ports in the Mediterranean Sea, the countries of Black and Caspian Sea, including Turkey. This railway is the second project after the Baku – Tbilisi – Ceyhan pipeline, which will develop the Azerbaijan’s economy. Azerbaijan will have a direct access to the Turkey by this railway. It will be able to go to Kars by railway for a day and half two days to Istanbul. Baku – Tbilisi – Kars railway will serve to increase the transit potential of the region’s countries and the expansion of foreign economic relations in country.
The great importance of this project is in the economic efficiency of cargo transportation, speed and timeliness, safety and reliability.
The North-West and North-South transport corridors, which pass through the territory of Azerbaijan, also the major reforms for the comfortable and safe delivery of the cargo are carried out in Azerbaijan. The traffic set prices is the main conditions in accordance with the tariff of fees, which is paid to the marketability for the effective use of the transit capabilities in Azerbaijan and for the cargo transportation. Because it just allows a basis to the gradually increasing loads in this direction.
The implementation for the consolidation of the railway systems in Azerbaijan and Iran is the important issues of the day. Currently, there is no existing rail lines between Azerbaijan and Iran, that is why some of the cargo pass through the border checkpoint by truck.In 2014, 50 thousand trucks to move between Iran and Azerbaijan, 50% of the vehicles were sent to Russia. This intensive growth of loads in this area will link the Iran΄s Gulf with the Black Sea.
The road Astar (Azerbaijan) – Astara (Iran), which built in 8 kilometers is serving for the development of the transport sector in 2 countries, and will provide the improvement of economic transportation relations between the states in the region. Transit traffic by this corridor from the Indian Ocean’s and the Persian Gulf΄s ports to the Bandar Khomeini, Bandar Abbas port, and from there by the railway line through the Azerbaijan, Geogia and Iran will be delivered to the ports of the Black Sea Basin.
According to preliminary calculations,taking into account the existing infrastructure, the cargo transportation by this corridor from Bandar Abbas to the ports of Batumi and Poti will be able to delivered for 7 days, and from the port of Mumbai – for 14days.
In fact, the Ukraine launched the alternative transportation its cargo on the International Transport Route Trans Caspian (Ukraine-Georgia-Azerbaijan-Kazakhstan-China). So, the cargo from Ukraine delivered to China for 15 days.
In today’s world the accelerating of globalization proses more and more, economic development, is characterized by the further strengthening of relations between the countries in the world. The world of the XXI century resistant (steady) is regarded as the century of development. To ensure sustainable development in a globalized world depends on domestic and foreign economic relations between the countries. In general, there are three dimensions of sustainable development. They are covered the social, economic and environmental areas. Referring to the challenges of sustainable development in the transport system of Azerbaijan Republic, will be held of forming an understanding the transport system without any danger for generations of all areas. Of course, the ensuring of sustainable transport development requies the achievement of the development in this sector.
In this regard, the issue of sustainable development of the transport system, the formation of the present age is an inevitable process. In recent years, the rapid development of the transport system in Azerbsijan Republic, as well as its relevant infrastructurre has been provided by the State Programs. The infrastructure of international standards causes to improve the quality of transport services. Modern vehicle operations, environmental and other strengthening of security – is one of the priorities of the economic policy in the State.This is means, that the dynamic operation of the transport system in the country and to ensure sustainable development of the economy in XXI century.