Summary: Creative use of the developed countries experience on realization of measures of state support of innovative processes in economy takes on a special significance for the Republic of Uzbekistan. The state regulation of innovative activity, realized by means of purposeful influence of state bodies on economic interests of institutes of innovative sphere, assumes as a condition of its efficiency a prediction of reactions of these institutes on these actions.
In the article there analyzed the innovative policy of Uzbekistan concerning groups of the industries different by character, volume of the resources necessary for updating and modernization of industrial potential on the basis of realization of domestic achievements of science and technology.
Keywords: innovations, innovative process, innovative activity, modernization of industry, market.
JEL (Journal of Economics Literature) code A10: General
The basis of efficiency of national economy of Uzbekistan is not only natural and manpower resources but also scientific and technical potential of the country. Transition of economy to a new qualitative condition has increased the importance of innovative activity, development of science intensive productions which finally is the major factor of way out of the economic crisis and maintenance of conditions for economic growth. Innovative activity includes sociopolitical, economic, public and other factors of social development and it is directed on maintenance of new level of interaction of production factors, due to application of new scientific and technical knowledge. The maintenance of innovative activity in economic sphere is a creation and distribution of innovations in material production. It represents a link between scientific and production sphere, as a result of which interrelation there realized technical and economic requirements of the society. The innovative sphere is different from scientific industrial one because it is distinguished by the presence of specific marketing function, specific methods of financing, crediting and methods of legal regulation, and also that is the most important, special system of motivation of innovative activity. Finally, these methods are predetermined by specificity of innovative labor and circulation of assets, acquisition of economic income and innovative product. In the conditions of economic reform, directed on maintenance of stabilization and transition to economic growth, in the Republic of Uzbekistan there developed measures for preservation of scientific and technical potential, its development and support. Creative use of experience of the developed countries on realization of measures of state support of innovative processes in economy gains a special importance for the Republic of Uzbekistan. As a result it will enable to form domestic system of stimulating innovative activity. The Republic of Uzbekistan develops accumulated scientific and technical potential in the country, provides with necessary volumes of investments, by means of long-term and short-term state programs. The state regulation of innovative activity, realized by means of purposeful influence of state bodies on economic interests of institutes of innovative sphere, assumes as a condition of its efficiency a prediction of reactions of these institutes on the actions of the state organizations. The bodies of state administration carry out regulating influence on object of innovative activity in order to receive desirable results. Probable reactions of innovative organizations to positive measures of state regulation can be the development of new markets, cooperation with other organizations, improvement of quality of products, search of partners and credits etc. In different countries the state regulates innovative activity in different ways in addition to market regulation, initiates competitive struggle between commodity producers. However competitive struggle of commodity producers is more often linked up to short-term financial effect. Market self-regulation is incapable to provide performance of perspective researches and elaborations connected with high degree of risk and uncertainty, high expenditures. In the conditions of uncertainty of commercial success of innovative project, expenses of financial resources are great; private sector prefers to focus not on perspective, but on existing parity of supply and demand. Thereupon, goal of the state is a formation of support system of small innovative business which includes informational support, professional training, carrying out of marketing elaborations, including foreign market. The basic functions of state bodies of the Republic of Uzbekistan in innovative sphere are: accumulation of means for scientific elaborations and innovations; coordination of innovative activity; stimulation of innovations, competition in the given sphere, insurance of innovative risks, introduction of the state sanctions for release of out-of-date products; creation of legal base of innovative processes, including systems of protection of copyrights and intellectual property protection; personnel maintenance of innovative activity; formation of innovative infrastructure; institutional maintenance of innovative processes in public sector branches; maintenance of social and ecological orientation of innovations; increase of public status of innovative activity; regional regulation of innovative processes; regulation of international aspects of innovative processes. State regulation is based on the choice of priorities, general strategic directions and guidelines of efficient scientific and technical and socio-economic development. One of state regulation problems is carrying out a set of measures on organizational-standard and state financial and resource support of innovative activity of the enterprises. State regulation uses forms and methods, corresponding to the potential opportunities which are given by existing market relations. In Germany and Japan an important role is traditionally paid to the state influence on functioning of market economy, there used measures of protectionism directed on restraint of spontaneous competition, with benefit for managing subjects. The state forms the purposes and principles in the field of its policy and own priorities in innovative and scientific spheres. Thus it is necessary to distinguish scientific and technical and innovative policy. In the first case the state pursues the aim of gaining new scientific knowledge. The purpose of innovative policy is creation and consumption of innovations satisfying personal and public needs.
Formation of market relations in Uzbekistan changes the system of government innovations radically. Functions of state bodies change essentially in connection with transition from departmental – branch-wise to program - targeted management. The government of Uzbekistan manages united fuel - energy and transport systems, communication and information, metrology and standardization, programs of fundamental researches and stimulations of innovations. The state innovative policy in Uzbekistan is realized at two levels of activity: nation-wide and regional. The primary goal of innovative policy of Uzbekistan is a creation of favorable innovative climate for materialization of state priorities of scientific and technical development in economic sphere. The general issues of innovative policy are reflected in the Decrees of the President of Uzbekistan where there given a strategy of scientific and technical policy and formation of priority directions in its realization.
The innovative policy is urged to provide an increase in gross domestic product of the country at the expense of developing production of essentially new kinds of production and technologies, and also on this basis expanding commodity markets of domestic goods. Taking into account today's state of the economy, the innovative policy facilitates to the development of scientific and technical potential, formation of modern technological ways in economy branches, replacement of out-of-date structures and increase of competitiveness of output at the present stage of market reforms. Defining feature of transfer of results of scientific researches for their development in production is a creation and development of system of commercial forms of interaction of science and production. The developed level of demand on external and internal markets for products of industry branches defines the perspective of their development and structural changes of basic production assets. The branches which have entered the world market with their production for consolidating on it need in increasing the efficiency of industrial potential. Other branches producing potentially competitive output in the world market receive the state support for entering the world market. More attention is demanded by the third group of branches focused basically on the domestic market (food and light industry, building materials industry).
The innovative policy of Uzbekistan concerning these groups of branches differs by character, support scales, volume of the resources necessary for updating and modernization of industrial potential on the basis of realization of domestic achievements of science and technology.
Thereupon it is possible to refer to the basic directions of the state innovative policy:
- Perfection of standard-legal maintenance of innovative activity, mechanisms of its stimulation, system of institutional transformations, intellectual property protection in innovative sphere and its introduction in economic circulation;
- Perfection of the system of complex support of innovative activity, development of production, an increase of competitiveness and export of high technology production. In the process of activization of innovative activity participation of not only state bodies, commercial structures, financial and credit institutions, but also public organizations is necessary;
- Development of infrastructure of innovative process, including informational support system, system of examination, financial and economic system, industrial and technological support, system of certification and advancement of elaborations, system of training and retraining of personnel.
- Development of small innovative entrepreneurship by forming favorable conditions for formation and successful functioning of small hi-tech organizations and rendering the state support to them at the initial stage of activity;
- Perfection of competitive system of selection of innovative projects and programs. Realization in the branches of economy concerning small and quickly repaid innovative projects with participation of private investors and with state support will allow to support the most perspective productions and organizations, strengthen inflow of private investments to them;
- Realization of critical technologies and priority directions, capable to transform corresponding branches of national economy and its regions. A key problem of formation and realization of innovative policy is the choice of concerning a small number of major base technologies, making decisive influence on increasing production efficiency and competitiveness of output in the branches of economy and providing transition to new technological structure.
The state innovative policy in branches and productions is directed on the accelerated industrial development of domestic and foreign scientific and technical and technological achievements of world level, reproduction of natural resources.
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